On August 1, 1819, American novelist Herman Melville was born in New York City. He spent several years traveling the world’s oceans which in turn gave him material for his novels of the seas. Descended from Scottish and Dutch settlers of New York, who were part of the American Revolution, while one grandfather, Major Thomas Melvill was a member of the Boston Tea Party in 1773. Another grandfather, Gen. Peter Gansevoort was a friend of James Fenimore Cooper.
After several attempts at “normal” jobs and not succeeding for various reasons, he was back in Boston in 1844, married to Elizabeth Shaw in 1847.
He read Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter and was so impressed with it he bought a farm near Hawthorn in 1850. His and Hawthorn’s friendship reanimated Melville’s creative energy. The problem was that Melville’s intense feelings of friendship were uncomfortable for the cooler Hawthorne. They ended up growing apart.
In 1851, Moby Dick was published in London as “The Whale”, while one month later in The United States as “Moby-Dick”.
His last years are fraught with tragedy, unhappiness, and withdrawal. He died in 1891 with only a single obituary notice.
On July 3, 1835, in Paterson, New Jersey, children went on strike seeking a more equitable eleven-hour workday instead of the thirteen and one-half hours that they were currently working. They were also seeking a six-day work week.
Paterson was the site of historic labor unrest that focused on anti-child labor legislation, and the six-month-long Paterson silk strike of 1913 that demanded the eight-hour day and better working conditions. It was defeated by the employers, with workers forced to return under pre-strike conditions. Factory workers labored long hours for low wages under dangerous conditions and lived in crowded tenement buildings around the mills. The factories then moved to the South, where there were no labor unions, and still later moved overseas.
Tidbits of Information for June 27
On June 27, 1829, James Smithson, an English scientist died and left an endowment to the United States to found the Smithsonian Institution. It was established by an act of Congress in 1846.
A few years ago my sister and I was on vacation in Washington DC and loved our vacation there. I wish we could have seen more; there is so much to do and see in DC that you need at least a week if not more. We had three days there and missed many of the sights and most of the many places that make up the Smithsonian. This deserves another visit, and one day hopefully, we will get back there.
In 1721 Dr. Zabdiel Boylston vaccinated his six-year-old son and two servants against smallpox. These were the first vaccinations given for the disease in the United States.
- Smallpox is a contagious disease caused by the variola virus.
- Smallpox was the first disease to be eliminated from the world through public-health efforts and vaccination.
- Smallpox still poses a threat because existing laboratory strains may be used as biological weapons.
- Smallpox causes high fever, prostration, and a characteristic rash. The rash usually includes blister-like lesions that occur everywhere on the body.
- Approximately one-third of people with smallpox died from the disease. Survivors were scarred for life. If the eye was infected, blindness often resulted.
- There are new experimental medications that might be effective in smallpox, but these have not been tested in human cases since the disease has been eradicated.
- The smallpox vaccine contains a live virus called vaccinia. It is administered by dipping a pronged piece of metal into the vaccine and then pricking the skin.
- The vaccine has uncommon side effects that may be fatal, including infection of the heart and brain with the vaccinia strain. Serious side effects are more common with the initial vaccine and are uncommon with second doses.
- The vaccine is currently only given to selected military personnel and laboratory workers who handle the smallpox virus.
Smallpox is thought to have existed for more than 12,000 years. Evidence of infection can be found in mummies from ancient Egypt, including the mummy of Ramses V. Smallpox entered the New World in the 16th century, carried by European explorers and conquistadors. Because the aboriginal inhabitants had no immunity to the disease, smallpox often decimated native populations. There are even reports where infected blankets were used to intentionally infect Native American populations in the 18th century — one of the early examples of biological warfare. During the 20th century, it is estimated that there were 300 million to 500 million deaths from smallpox worldwide, compared to 100 million from tuberculosis
Currently, the risk factors are working in highly specialized laboratories that may still have smallpox viruses in storage by accident or become contaminated while either working with the viruses or using the viruses as a biological weapon. Continue Reading